Uncertainty related to a decision making is very interesting concept. It is poorly tolerated and it´s nature and extent is also not well understood. Medical decision making is never deterministic and hence uncertainty is present everywhere in medicine. Concept of probability is closely related to the uncertainty. Very crucial part in the patient-doctor communication is the communication about probabilities related to the health problem at hand needing a decision to be made. Bonner et al. published a very good paper about this topic in the Medical Decision Making: Current Best Practice for Presenting Probabilities in Patient Decision Aids: Fundamental Principles.
I also want to highlight this paper related to the same topic. This is probably the best I have read about uncertainty in decision making: Communicating the Uncertainty of Harms and Benefits of Medical Interventions.