Exploratory or confirming study?

Methodology is hard. And making valid inferences is very hard. With regard to these topics, orthopaedic research is not very different to other field in medicine. It means that misconceptions, misunderstandings and flawed approaches are prevalent also in our field. American Journal of Sports Medicine published recently two papers which both made a quite common, […]

No evidence of no evidence

In the null hypothesis significance testing framework, failure to reject the null is never evidence in support of null. However, it is extremely common that failure to reject the null, ie. getting a p-value larger 0.05 is interpreted as “no difference” or “no evidence”. As many experts have said, “absence of evidence is not evidence […]